The following information relates to technical aspects of film projection, print handling and inspection. If you wold like to contribute information to this area of the directory, please contact .
Note: The On-Line Tools section has resources for the international application of the 16mm Directory.
Bauer Selecton II (German)
16mm Directory is in search of the following manuals to make available (as PDFs) for public use. Original or clean photo copies only.
- Bauer Selecton II
- Eiki 6100//9100
- Eiki 3500/5500
- Eiki 2000
- Elmo CX350/550
- Elmo CL-16
- Hortson model G
- Hokushin SC-210
- Hokushin X-500/X-600
- Philips/Norelco (Kinoton) FP-16 (1960s)
- Kinoton FP-18 (1980s)
- Kodak Pageant 250A (Marc 300)
VIDEO AIDS TO FILM PRESERVATION
Folkstreams created this very thorough list of technical aids for handling film and use of film equipment.
PROJECTOR IMAGE SIZE CALCULATION
For projector image size and determining the lens focal length, try the following formula. (For metric 1 inch = 25.4mm).
(D x A) ÷ F = W
A = 16mm APERTURE = 0.38 inches
D = Projection DISTANCE in feet
W = Image WIDTH in feet
F = FOCAL length in inches (25.4 millimeters per inch)
20mm FOCAL length lens is 0.79 inches, and the DISTANCE of the projector’s aperture to the surface of the projection screen is 20 feet
(D x A) ÷ F = W
(20 x 0.38) ÷ 0.79 = 9.62 foot image WIDTH
Film Print Inspection Form/Report
This form is to be used as communication between exhibition venues and distributors. The process is used provide a record of print condition at the time of receiving the print(s), and possible damage control measures taken (replacing splices, repairing torn perforations, cleaning/lubricating print). Prints should always be inspected prior to projection to aid in the prevention of possible damage, and ensure quality presentation.
Inspection form/report (PDF: 80KB)
PROJECTOR LAMP INFO
Marc 300 Lamp Info
GE was the only company to make the EZM, EZG and EZT lamps. When these lamps are used even for a minute, a white deposit of Halide chemicals will form near the negative electrode (cathode) on the inside of the quarts discharge vessel. This will indicate a used lamp. If new, the quartz should be clear and free from deposits. EZG lamps, the last Marc lamps manufactured by GE, have a high failure rate. New-old-stock EZG lamps should be tested first before purchasing.
- Marc 300/350 Power Supply Info (All manufactured by GE then NAPS)
- Bell & Howell Lamp Supply Unit part number 077259
- Bell & Howell Lamp Supply Unit part number 014640
- Bell & Howell Lamp Supply Unit part number 014660
- Bell & Howell Lamp Supply Unit part number 013300 (50 Hz)
- Bell & Howell Lamp Supply Unit part number 013310 (60 Hz)
- GE Gemini & MARC Lamp Power Supply model 9T68Y4000G2
- GE Gemini & MARC Lamp Power Supply model 9T68Y4002G2
- GE Gemini & MARC Lamp Power Supply model 9T68Y4060
- GE Gemini & MARC Lamp Power Supply model 9T68Y4061
- GE Gemini & MARC Lamp Power Supply model 9T68Y4070
- GE Gemini & MARC Lamp Power Supply model 9T68Y4070G2
- GE Gemini & MARC Lamp Power Supply model 9T68Y4063G3
- NAPS (North American Power Supplies) model 9T68Y4070
- ColorArc Model #10601-1A
- ColorArc Model #10601-7A
- ColorArc Model #10601-8A
RECOMMENDED PORTABLE QUARTZ LAMP PROJECTORS
Bell & Howell 1574/1579
52mm lens barrel diameter (also Bauer)
This manual threading model runs at 18 and 24 fps. The weak link is a plastic worm gear that over time will crack, but can be replaced with a modern plastic part that is long lasting.
42.5mm lens barrel diameter (also Hokushin, Hortson, Philips/Norelco, Kinoton)
42.5mm lens barrel diameter (also Eiki, Hortson, Philips/Norelco, Kinoton)
Probably the lightest weight in a portable quartz lamp projector, very compact. One of the gentlest slot loading machines out there.
Lamp: EJL, or substitute ELC
Lens barrel diameter is unique and does not cross over with other projectors, wide lenses can be hard to find Eastman Kodak manufactured the last model Pageant (250S) from March 1977 to January 1983. This model projector has the Super 40 shutter (which minimizes flicker when projecting at 18 fps for films shot at 18 fps), and lever for optical sound focus.
Measurement recorded in foot lamberts, Kodak and other technical standards organizations (SMPTE) recommends 16 foot lamberts. There’s a way to convert a spot meter reading to foot lamberts.
From the Kris Malkiewicz’s book Cinematography:
"Most cinematographers do not own a foot-lambert meter, but there is a way to use a regular reflected meter as a substitute. The meter should be set at 100 EI/ASA and 1/50 second. The meter then is pointed at the screen, which is illuminated by a projector running without film in the gate. The reading of f/3.2 will represent 16 foot-lamberts."
The Samuelson Manual of Cinematography gives an account of the same technique (also mentions that the auditorium lighting should be set for normal viewing), he also gives the following table of values (at 1/50 sec for 100 ASA).
Foot Lamberts (as printed in the Samuelson text):
4 = f 1.5 (EV 7)
8 = f 2.25 (EV 8)
10 = f 2.5 (EV 8 1/2)
12 = f 2.8 (EV 8)
16 = f 3.2 (EV 9)
32 = f 4.8 (EV 10)